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Childhood trauma: allowing closeness – a holistic approach

Alain de Botton on closeness – a guide to overcoming toxic feelings of shame and guilt

I. Introduction

   – Alain de Botton on proximity

When toxic feelings of shame and guilt make trust and closeness impossible, Alain de Botton, a renowned philosopher and author, offers profound insights into closeness. That topic occupies a central place in many of his works.

In his approach, de Botton views closeness as physical or emotional intimacy between people and a complex interplay of understanding, acceptance and the ability to share our deepest feelings and thoughts with others. He challenges conventional assumptions about relationships and shows how unconscious fears, expectations and the burden of past experiences often influence true closeness. Combining philosophical reflections with everyday examples, de Botton invites readers to rethink their ideas of closeness while offering practical ways to develop more authentic and deeper connections in their lives.

De Botton has consequently developed various ideas about emotional closeness. Firstly, he emphasises how important it is to understand and acknowledge your partner’s emotional needs. He talks about the importance of expressing and accepting needs for affirmation and security rather than hiding them or being ashamed. He also explains how emotional closeness is formed in childhood and how previous experiences of closeness and rejection influence our behavioural patterns and our ability to connect emotionally. De Botton argues that openness, honesty, and recognition of emotional needs are the basis for a healthy and fulfilling relationship – one’s and those of the other person.

Closeness can be challenging for anyone, as it is vulnerable to resentment and fear of loneliness. Those with only shaky self-confidence face this challenge in particular. Honest conversations in which you share disappointments and fears with your partner and feel heard are essential for any successful relationship. Criticism must be freed from anger and rage to create genuine closeness. In a healthy relationship, everyone has a right to their needs and to openly express their “neediness”. Stigmatising needs in a relationship, on the other hand, destroys trust and closeness. Particularly for those affected by childhood trauma, unique challenges arise in connection with trust and insecurity. Self-doubt and insecurity can be triggered by everyday and seemingly harmless situations or behaviours, such as when the partner is at work longer than usual or meets strangers. Within long-term relationships, partners hide their needs and create distance, the ideal breeding ground for an affair.

Another challenge after childhood trauma is that sexual intimacy plays an essential role in creating closeness. However, entrenched perceptual patterns and roles within a long-term relationship erode initial admiration and attraction significantly when trust and trustworthiness are damaged in perception. The social norm that love is the main goal in life and friendships are considered inferior also reinforces a toxic self-perception in this context. People then fear that they must not break this unique relationship because otherwise, they will have “failed again” and “only” have friendships left.

   – The influence of toxic shame and feelings of guilt on the ability to be close

Toxic shame and guilt are deeply rooted emotional states that mainly stem from adverse childhood experiences. They prevent individuals from fully opening up in relationships and allowing genuine closeness. These feelings are rooted in the conviction of being fundamentally “wrong”, “dysfunctional”, or inadequate in some other way. The resulting “trauma identity” is characterised by this conviction of one’s worthlessness and inferiority.

De Botton points out that these deep-seated beliefs often have an unconscious effect and cause those affected to withdraw from relationships, avoid confrontation, or always conform to avoid rejection. These patterns disrupt trust and the deepening of emotional bonds. Toxic feelings of shame and guilt particularly lead people to conceal their true feelings and needs for fear of rejection and misunderstanding.

II Childhood trauma: origins and effects

   – Definition and types of childhood trauma

– Causes of childhood trauma:

Childhood trauma often arises from abuse and neglect. They lead to profound disorders in various areas of life, particularly in emotion regulation, self-perception, sexuality, and relationships.

– Trauma identity:

The experiences of trauma in childhood change the self-perception and personal values and beliefs, which leads to the development of a so-called trauma identity.

– Symptoms of cPTBS:

Typical symptoms include emotional flashbacks and trigger states, bullying inner or outer critic, toxic shame, fragile self-esteem, self-denial, social anxiety, feelings of loneliness and abandonment, attachment disorders, relationship difficulties, personality development disorders and radical mood swings.

– Plus and minus symptoms:

The consequences of trauma can be divided into plus variants (intrusive symptoms such as intrusive memories and emotional flashbacks) and minus variants (constrictive symptoms such as memory gaps and numbness).

– Primary and secondary PTSD symptoms:

Primary symptoms are directly linked to the trauma experience (e.g. flashbacks, nightmares, specific fears). At the same time, secondary consequences arise from the attempt to cope with the primary symptoms (e.g. fear of people, withdrawal behaviour).

– Accompanying clinical pictures:

Often, accompanying disorders such as anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, psychosomatic disorders, and dependency disorders also occur with cPTBS.

   – Long-term psychological effects of childhood trauma

The long-term psychological effects of childhood trauma are profound and multifaceted, especially when it comes to shame and guilt and their impact on trust, closeness, and attachment.

– Trust:

   – The ability to trust other people is significantly impaired by early trauma. The destructive experience for children that attachment figures are unreliable or even evil leads to a fundamental mistrust of others. That mistrust makes it difficult to open up in relationships for fear of being hurt or betrayed.

– Closeness and bonding ability:

   – Deep-seated shame and the associated feelings of guilt make intimate and close relationships difficult for fear of being rejected because of one’s inadequacy and out of the devastating feeling of not deserving love and affection. The result is a tendency towards emotional detachment and non-commitment in the desire to protect oneself against vulnerability and dependency in profound, meaningful relationships.

De Botton emphasises that the first step to overcoming these emotional obstacles is awareness and recognition of these feelings. He recommends facing up to these feelings and finding the underlying cause of their origins, often with the help of therapy or in-depth self-reflection. In this way, those affected learn to understand the sources of their shame and guilt and acquire the means to address these feelings constructively in their relationships. Only by confronting and working through these deeply rooted negative self-beliefs can those affected grow beyond their trauma identity into a new self-image that allows them to develop healthier relationships in which genuine closeness is possible.

III Toxic shame and guilt: hidden obstacles

   – How toxic shame and feelings of guilt arise

Toxic shame and guilt are deeply rooted emotional states and the result of a complex interaction of subjective experiences, family dynamics and social influences during childhood.

– Violence, abuse, and neglect:

Toxic shame and guilt often arise as a direct result of emotional, physical, or sexual abuse and neglect in childhood. Children who have such experiences blame themselves for these terrible experiences, as it is psychologically impossible for them to blame the adults who should love and protect them.

– Critical or derogatory attachment figures:

If children are regularly exposed to criticism, ridicule, or devaluation by important caregivers, this awakens feelings of worthlessness and shame. They develop the conviction that there is something fundamentally wrong with them.

– Unrealistic expectations and perfectionism:

In the face of excessively lofty expectations or perfectionism, children learn that they only deserve love and recognition if they fulfil these expectations. Failure, or even the feeling of failure, then plunges them into deep guilt and shame.

– Misinterpretation of events:

Children have a limited ability to interpret events objectively. Therefore, when appropriate statements are made, they easily regard adverse events (such as their parents’ divorce, financial problems in the family, etc.) as their fault.

– Social and cultural factors:

Cultural norms and social expectations can also contribute to the development of toxic shame, especially when they convey messages of inadequacy or non-belonging. Over time, children internalise the messages and criticisms they hear from caregivers. These messages become embedded in their self-image and lead to persistent toxic shame and guilt.

   – Self-image and interpersonal relationships

The profound impact of toxic shame and guilt on self-image and interpersonal relationships can be summarised from the insights in the earlier sections:

– Impairment of the self-image:

   – Toxic shame and guilt often lead to a negative self-image. Individuals who experience these emotions see themselves as inadequate, flawed, or unworthy. That self-perception is deeply ingrained and fundamentally affects their thoughts, feelings, and behaviours.

   – Such a damaged self-image can lead to low self-esteem, self-criticism, and excessive self-observation, with one’s perception constantly coloured by negative inner dialogues and beliefs.

– Interpersonal relationships:

   – In relationships, toxic shame and guilt make it difficult for people to open up and allow real closeness. They fear that their true identity will be rejected, which leads to a pattern of withdrawal, distancing or excessive conformity.

   – Fear of rejection and feelings of inadequacy can also lead to conflict avoidance, communication problems and, in some cases, dysfunctional relationships in which those affected either cling too tightly or isolate themselves emotionally.

– Sexuality:

The shameful experience that sexuality is often easier with anonymous partners than with one’s trusted partner is a complex phenomenon that is intricately linked to issues of vulnerability, trust, and emotional closeness. For people who are plagued by deep-rooted feelings of shame and guilt, intimacy with a trusted partner can be particularly challenging. The intimacy of a close relationship brings with it a heightened fear of vulnerability when negative self-perception and rejection extend to one’s body and appearance. The deepest insecurities, fears, and self-doubt become visible and palpable in such a dynamic. The thought of being emotionally “naked” in front of someone close to you and whose opinion carries weight can be overwhelming.

In contrast, sexuality with an anonymous partner can be perceived as less threatening. Anonymity protects against the deep vulnerability that arises in an intimate relationship. Without the fear of deep judgement or the need to maintain a deeper emotional connection, those affected feel freer and more carefree. In fleeting encounters, the sexual experience is less burdened with the weight of emotional intimacy and the associated fears and insecurities.

However, this behaviour is always problematic in the long term. It represents an escape from the deeper challenges of intimacy and closeness in a committed relationship. It prevents the development of genuine trust and emotional connection, which is essential for a healthy and fulfilling partnership. Likewise, escape reinforces self-deprecation and creates a sense of isolation and alienation because real closeness and emotional connection are avoided. Overcoming this paradox requires overcoming underlying self-beliefs to develop healthier intimacy and emotional expression in relationships.

– The cycle of self-sabotage:

   – At the centre of the emotional dynamics described so far is the “cycle of self-sabotage”. People who suffer from toxic shame and guilt unconsciously create situations that confirm their negative self-image time and time again. That is an unconscious repetition compulsion – a building block of every trauma identity. That can manifest itself in the choice of toxic relationship partners, the avoidance of success or self-sabotage in other areas of life.

– Long-term consequences:

   – The constant inner criticism and the feeling of worthlessness destroy the quality of life in the long term. In the long term, these emotional patterns, therefore, lead to chronic stress, anxiety disorders, depression or even, in an attempt at self-treatment, addictive behaviour.

self-image and establish more constructive relationship patterns.

IV. The journey of recognition and understanding

   – The importance of recognising trauma and negative emotions

Recognising and understanding trauma and the negative emotions associated with it are crucial steps on the path to healing and emotional health. The process begins with recognising that the traumas experienced, and the resulting feelings of shame, guilt and fear profoundly affect one’s life. Acknowledging them is often tricky, requiring dealing with painful and unpleasant memories and emotions.

   – Methods and techniques for awareness and acceptance.

Methods and techniques for awareness and acceptance can include therapeutic conversations, diary writing, mindfulness exercises or artistic forms of expression. They enable those affected to explore and articulate their feelings, which is often the first step towards processing and overcoming these emotions. Through this conscious exploration, individuals can begin to integrate their experiences, make sense of them, and ultimately find a path to personal change and development. That journey of recognition and understanding is an ongoing process that requires patience, self-compassion and often the support of professionals.

– Self-love

Self-love is a fundamental part of personal transformation, especially for those struggling with the effects of childhood trauma, toxic shame, and guilt. It involves acceptance of oneself, including all strengths, weaknesses, and past experiences. Self-love means treating yourself with the same compassion, understanding, and respect you show others. It allows you to move away from the self-critical attitude that often results from toxic shame and guilt and instead develop an attitude of self-acceptance and self-worth. Self-love is recognising that you are worthy and valuable despite your past and imperfections. That realisation is crucial to overcoming negative self-images and promoting positive change in one’s life.

The development of self-love as an antidote to shame and guilt begins with the awareness and recognition of one’s needs and feelings. That often requires distancing oneself from old patterns of self-doubt and self-criticism and instead practising understanding and acceptance of oneself. A crucial step here is to reflect on your own experiences and how these have shaped your self-image. That also includes freeing yourself from unjustified self-blame and understanding that the past does not have to define the present. Methods such as positive self-talk, affirmations, and gratitude exercises can help build a healthier and more loving relationship with yourself. These practices allow you to free yourself from shame and guilt and cultivate a sense of self-worth.

– Self-care

Effective self-care is a practical realisation of self-love and is crucial in personal healing and transformation. It includes activities that promote both physical and mental well-being. That can consist of routines that support relaxation and stress reduction, such as yoga, meditation or walks in nature. Maintaining healthy sleeping habits, a balanced diet and regular physical activity are important aspects of self-care. Psychologically, scheduling time for hobbies and interests that bring joy and fulfilment is helpful. Setting boundaries in relationships and the ability to say no are essential in protecting and promoting your well-being. In addition, seeking professional support, such as therapy or coaching, can be an effective way to strengthen self-care and develop a healthier relationship with yourself.

– Working with the inner child

The inner child represents the original self-formed in childhood and includes positive and painful experiences. The aim of collaborating with it is to recognise, accept and heal the emotions and unfulfilled needs of the inner child.

Acknowledging and caring for the inner child begins with the understanding that many current emotional responses, behaviours, and beliefs are rooted in childhood. Children who have experienced neglect, abuse or other forms of trauma carry deep-seated wounds that shape their self-image and relationships in adulthood. In dialogue with their inner child, those affected can bring these wounds to light and actively deal with them.

The practice can include techniques such as guided meditations, visualisations, creative expression (such as painting or writing) and therapeutic conversations. The aim is to build a loving and supportive relationship with the inner child by offering listening, comfort, and acceptance. That can help to transform deep-rooted feelings of shame and inadequacy and develop a sense of internal security and self-worth.

In addition, working with the inner child makes it possible to recognise and rewrite negative self-beliefs and behavioural patterns from childhood. By giving the internal child space and recognising its needs, old wounds can heal, and a healthier, more loving self-relationship can emerge.

V. Building healthy relationships and communication patterns

   – How emotional healing affects the way we manage relationships.

Emotional healing plays a crucial role in how we lead and experience relationships. Overcoming childhood trauma and working through personal emotional challenges, such as toxic shame and guilt, creates a new foundation for healthier relationship dynamics. Individuals who go through a healing process often develop a deeper understanding of their own needs and boundaries and a greater awareness of the needs of others. That leads to greater emotional availability, empathy and a more balanced approach to closeness and distance in relationships.

Equally important is recognising and communicating one’s vulnerabilities without feeling threatened. Emotional healing makes building trust and authenticity possible, which is fundamental to intimate and fulfilling relationships. Learning to deal with one’s emotions healthily reduces the likelihood that old conflict avoidance or escalation patterns will continue in relationships.

   – Techniques for developing healthy communication skills.

  1. Active listening: Active listening is crucial to healthy communication. It involves paying full attention to your partner, allowing them to speak without interruption and showing interest and understanding through non-verbal signals. That promotes mutual respect and understanding in communication.
  2. Ego messages: Using ‘I’ messages helps to express thoughts and feelings without accusing or criticising the other person. Statements such as “I feel …” or “It is important to me that …” make it possible to communicate your needs and feelings clearly and without accusations.
  3. Conflict resolution: An essential aspect of healthy communication is the ability to resolve conflicts constructively. That involves addressing problems directly and openly without becoming defensive or aggressive. It is about finding an acceptable solution for both sides rather than winning or being right.
  4. Empathy and validation show that you understand and recognise the other person’s feelings. Validating your partner’s feelings, even if you disagree, can help to strengthen trust and closeness.
  5. Self-regulation: Regulating emotional reactions is crucial for effective communication. It includes recognising when you are upset and calming down before continuing the discussion.
  6. Setting boundaries: Healthy relationships require clear boundaries. That means knowing and communicating your boundaries and respecting your partner’s boundaries.

Building healthy relationships and communication patterns is an ongoing process requiring self-reflection and personal development commitment. By learning and applying these techniques, individuals can build stronger, more fulfilling relationships based on mutual trust, respect and understanding. There is also further information on Amazon:

  1. For a book on communication, you will find the link on Amazon here: LISTEN, THINK, THEN TALK: THE PRACTICAL WORKBOOK FOR BETTER COMMUNICATION.


  1. A book on unhealthy relationship patterns is also available on Amazon. You can find the link here: Escaping Toxic Ties: Unraveling & Defeating Destructive Relationship Habits.


VI Long-term prospects and growth

   – Lasting emotional health

Maintaining emotional health is an ongoing process that requires mindfulness and commitment. Long-term emotional well-being is based on regular self-reflection, consciously dealing with feelings, Stemper, Dirk. 2023. Escaping Toxic Ties: Unraveling & Defeating Destructive Relationship Habits. Berlin: Psychologie Halensee.

Stemper, Dirk. 2023. Listen, Think, Then Talk: The Practical Workbook for Better Communication. Berlin: Psychologie Halensee.and maintaining healthy relationships. Meditation, mindfulness exercises and journaling bring awareness to inner emotional states. In addition, a supportive network of friends, family and possibly therapists is essential to provide support and perspective in times of need.

   – Personal growth

Personal development and lifelong learning are essential components for sustained growth and happiness. That includes a willingness to take on new challenges, learn from mistakes and continuously improve oneself. Pursuing personal development can take many forms, from continuing professional development to exploring creative hobbies or spiritual practices. Remain open to new experiences and perspectives that broaden your understanding of the world and your role in it. Lifelong learning promotes cognitive flexibility and adaptability and can help boost self-esteem and lead a more fulfilling, meaningful life.

VIII Conclusion

The path to real closeness after childhood trauma requires overcoming toxic shame and feelings of guilt. That requires a deep understanding of one’s emotional processes and the willingness to engage actively. Self-love and self-care are essential components, as are working with the inner child and building healthy relationship dynamics.

Alain de Botton emphasises the importance of profoundly understanding interpersonal dynamics in emotional healing. His perspective on closeness, vulnerability and the complexity of human relationships offers valuable insights into the healing process. His emphasis on necessity enriches the understanding of a holistic healing process by demonstrating how self-reflection and personal growth are intimately connected and lead to the developing richer, more authentic interpersonal relationships.

IX. Sources

Botton, Alain de. 2019. The School of Life: An Emotional Education. London: School of Life.

Bradshaw, John. 1990 Homecoming: Reclaiming and Championing Your Inner Child. New York: Bantam.

Capacchione, Lucia. 1991 Recovery of Your Inner Child. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Hanh, Thich Nhat. 2006 Reconciliation: Healing the Inner Child. Berkeley, California: Parallax Press.

Sack, Martin. 2010. Gentle trauma therapy: Resource-orientated treatment of trauma-related disorders. Stuttgart: Schattauer Verlag.

Stahl, Stefanie. 2020 The Child in You: The Breakthrough Method for Bringing Out Your Authentic Self. London: Penguin.

Stemper, Dirk. 2023. Escaping Toxic Ties: Unraveling & Defeating Destructive Relationship Habits. Berlin: Psychologie Halensee.

Stemper, Dirk. 2023. Listen, Think, Then Talk: The Practical Workbook for Better Communication. Berlin: Psychologie Halensee.

Walker, Pete. 2013. Complex PTSD: From Surviving to Thriving: A Guide and Map for Recovering from Childhood Trauma. Createspace Independent Publishing Platform.

Walker, Pete. 2015. The Tao of Fully Feeling: Harvesting Forgiveness Out of Blame. Createspace Independent Publishing Platform.

Whitfield, Charles L. 1987. Healing the Child Within: Discovery and Recovery for Adult Children of Dysfunctional Families (Recovery Classics Edition). Deerfield Beach, Florida: Health Communications, Inc.

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